Neurological diseases are the disorders or diseases associated with the brain, spine, and the nerves that are connected to them. All these disorders have a major impact on the brain and central nervous system (CNS).
As stated in the Neurology Journal, there are around 600 known types of neurological disorders, and it is essential to recognize the type of disorder before diagnosing or recognizing the symptoms and signs of the diseases.
Some of the widely known types of neurological disorders are Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy, Alzheimer’s Disease, Migraines, and multiple sclerosis. Other neurological conditions are as follows:
- Memory disorders
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Brain tumors
- Spinal cord tumor
- Arteriovenous malformation
- Brain aneurysm
- Dural arteriovenous fistula
Causes Of Neurological Disorders:
The causes of brain or spine disorders are diverse. Both, the brain and spinal cord are insulated by various membranes that can be prone or vulnerable to pressure and force and can be severely damaged when hit or a force is applied to it.
Additionally, the peripheral nerves that are located deep in the skin can be equally vulnerable to damage. Depending on the hit or pressure applied, a single neuron or the entire neuron pathway can be affected. Hence, even a small disturbance in the neuron’s pathway can cause dysfunction.
Some of the causes of neurological disorders are genetics, infections, physical injuries, environmental influences, lifestyle-related causes, and nutrition-related causes. Further, they may be present in a person from birth, pre or perinatal causes, and developed after birth.
Congenital causes or disorders that are present from birth are:
- Gene abnormalities
- Chromosome abnormalities
- Change in chromosome number
- Change in chromosome structure
- Metabolic disorders
- Congenital malformation
Pre/Peritoneal Causes are:
- Toxins and environmental factors
- Nutritional deficiencies
- Complications during childbirth
- Prematurity/low birth weight
- Interaction effects
Acquired causes or disorders developed after birth are:
- Immune disorders
- Postnatal infections – Encephalitis, Meningitis
- Traumatic brain injury (TBI): closed head injuries, open wounds, and crushing injuries
- Spinal cord injuries
Signs and Symptoms of Neurological Disorders:
The signs of disorders depend on the type and the area of the body that is affected by it. Accordingly, there may be physical symptoms and emotional symptoms. The physical symptoms include decreases alertness, Partial or complete paralysis, Muscle weakness, partial or complete loss of sensation, seizures, difficulty reading and writing, poor cognitive abilities, and unexplained pain.
As much common as it is to look for physical symptoms, it also necessary to not ignore any changes in the emotional behavior of the person. Some of the most noticeable and common emotional signs or symptoms are depression, delusions, mood swings, and sudden outbursts. If a person is displaying such signs, it is best to take them to a doctor immediately. Read the Clinical Investigations Journal.
Typical Neurological Procedures:
There are different procedures to detect different kinds of disorders. Some of the standard tests performed are:
Lumbar Puncture: The lumbar puncture test is done to test the spinal fluid. This test is prescribed if a doctor detects a disorder in the nervous system which can be tested with the help of spinal fluid. The spine is first made numb, and a needle is injected, and a sample of the fluid is taken.
Tensilon Test: This test procedure helps the neurologist diagnose or detect for myasthenia gravis. A medicine called Tensilon is injected into the patient’s body, and its effects on muscle movements are observed.
Electroencephalogram (EEG): EEG is a test that helps measure the electrical activity in the brain with the help of electrodes that applied on the person’s scalp. Some of the scans or tests that a neurologist uses to make the diagnosis are CT scan, MRI scan, and PET scan. Other test procedures include sleep studies and angiogram, is a test that is performed to determine the blockages in the blood vessels that go to the brain.