Stem cells are the body’s raw substances — cells from which all other cells with specific functions generated. Under the right positions in the body or a laboratory, stem cells distribute to form more cells described as daughter cells.
These daughter cells either convert new stem cells or grow specialized cells with a more specific function, such as blood cells, heart muscle cells or bone cells, and brain cells. No other cell in the body produces the genetic ability to generate new cell types.
These things make stem cells a potential treatment to assist organ and tissue repair after invasive procedures such as surgery. To know thing search in stem surgery journal.
Different Kinds Of A Stem Cell:
Embryonic Stem Cells:
Embryonic stem cells produce new cells for an embryo as it develops and grows into a baby. These stem cells are said to be pluripotent, which means they can break into any cell in the body. These stem cells develop from embryos that are three to five days old. At this stage, an embryo has named a blastocyst and has around 150 cells produced.
Adult Stem Cells:
Adult stem cells provide new cells as a body grows and to replace cells that get damaged. Adult stem cells are related to being multipotent, which means they can only turn into some cells in the body, not any cell.
These stem cells are located in small numbers in most adult tissues, such as bone marrow or fat. Until recently, researchers studied adult stem cells could create only similar types of cells. For example, researchers thought that stem cells remaining in the bone marrow could give rise only to blood cells.
Perinatal Stem Cells:
Researchers have found stem cells in amniotic fluid as well as umbilical cord blood. These stem cells also can change into specialized cells. Amniotic fluid fills the sac that encloses and protects a developing fetus in the uterus.
Researchers have recognized stem cells in samples of amniotic fluid drawn from pregnant women to test for abnormalities — a system called amniocentesis.
Where Are Stem Cells Used?
Peripheral Blood Stem Cells:
While most blood stem cells remain in the bone marrow, a small number are present in the bloodstream. These external blood stem cells, or PBSCs, can be used just like bone marrow stem cells to treat leukemia, other cancers, and various blood disorders.
Since they can obtain from drawn blood, PBSCs are more comfortable to collect than bone marrow stem cells, which must extract from within bones. This makes PBSCs a less invasive treatment choice than bone marrow stem cells. PBSCs are rare in the bloodstream; however, so collecting enough to perform a transplant can pose a challenge.
Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells:
Newborn babies no longer need their umbilical cords, so they have traditionally dismissed as a by-product of the birth method. In recent years, however, the stem-cell–rich blood seen in the umbilical cord has proven helpful in treating the related types of health dilemmas as those managed to utilize bone marrow stem cells and PBSCs.
Umbilical cord blood stem cell operations are less prone to refusal than either bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells. This is apparently because the cells have not yet produced the features that can identify and attacked by the recipient’s immune system.
Also, because umbilical cord blood lacks well-developed protected cells, there is less risk that the transplanted cells will attack the recipient’s body, a dilemma called graft versus host disease. Know more details of the stem by referencing Stem Cell Journal.