A hydraulic motor is a device that converts hydraulic energy to mechanical energy. Because of the amount of force and power they produce for their size, they are a popular choice in many vehicles and machines. However, there are several different things to consider when choosing one of these motors. Many designers look at load, speed, operating pressure, and serviceability. To make these decisions, they must know some of the crucial factors about these motors.
Any hydraulic motor consists of four main components, gears, vanes, bent-axis pistons, and radial pistons. The gears are what rotates when the motor receives hydraulic fluid. This motion produces a rotary motion in the output shaft. The next moving part is the vane, which shifts in the central rotor. It starts moving once the hydraulic fluid hits it and helps churn the output shaft.
The last moving parts are the pistons, which are located alongside the output shaft. The pistons are responsible for rotating the cam once the motor is filled with hydraulic fluid. This contributes to the speed and efficiency of the energy output from the motor.
All common motors have similar design features, including a driving surface dependant on pressure differentials, the ability to maintain a continuous rotation by timing the porting of pressure fluid, and a mechanical connection between the output shaft and motor’s surface area. However, other features can be unique to each machine. For instance, the motor displacement is the amount of fluid a motor needs to make the output shaft complete one revolution. You can find these measurements in inches or centimeters cubed. Additionally, you can find machines that have fixed or variable displacement values.
The torque output is also a feature that should be considered because it can depend on each motor’s specifications. Always check the overall inches or feet per pound rating. Then, check the breakaway torque or the amount of force needed to put a stationary load into motion. Your motor will need more torque to get a machine or vehicle moving than to keep it going. Also, check your running torque or the amount of force you need to keep your machine or vehicle in motion. Finally, don’t forget to look at the starting torque or the amount of force required to start a machine. This is usually even lower than your running torque requirements.
There are many different things you need to know about hydraulic motors. The components and features are the most common things you should consider when learning about them.